In 2001 census, there were 9,981 marine artisanal canoes operating, many of which are wooden (Anon 2003). Many lagoons are over-exploited, have changed their characteristics since the construction of the Akosombo dam or suffer extreme pollution (Anon 2003). Alestidae. Artisanal operators catch shrimps mainly in beach seines, these are normally juvenile shrimps of very low commercial value (ibid). Key on the export destination list of Ghana are the European Union, Japan, United States of America, Canada, Togo, Mali, Cote d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Benin, Nigeria, Hong Kong and Singapore (ibid). From the fearsome Nile crocodile to the bizarre-looking Parson’s chameleon, the reptiles of Africa are as diverse as the continent’s numerous habitats.. On this page you’ll find pictures and facts about African reptiles both common and less well-known. 3. There are also fisheries for demersal species of the families Sparidae, Lutjamdae, Mullidae, Pomadasydae, Serranidae, Polynidae and Penaedae (Marsah at al 2001). [8] The sector is estimated to contribute 3% of the total GDP and 5% of the GDP in agriculture. Fish landing are dominated by tilapia species (38.1%), Chrysichtys sp (34.4%), synodrantis sp (11.4%), Labes (3.4%), Mormyrids (2.0%) Heterotis (1.5%) clarias sp (1.5%), clarias sp (1.5%), schilbeide (1.4%), odaxothrissa mento (1.4%), Bragrus sp (1.35) and citharinus sp (1.2%) and the rest which are less than 1% include Alestes sp, Brycinas sp, Distichodus sp, Gymmarclus sp; Hydrocynus sp and Lates niloticus, (Braimah 2001). Other Lake fisheries include, The average yield of fishery decreased from 46.8kg/ha in 1976 to 32.6kg/ha in 1998 (, The most important of Ghana’s lagoons is the, As regards aquaculture the main species cultured are, Fishing, Areas, Communities and landing sites in the, The lake Volta covers a total of 1232 communities (, On the Lake Volta one could count as many as 32 landing sites which often also serve as marketing centres. A recent development in the sector has been the introduction of demersal pair trawling (ibid). In Ghana, the fish species that are usually processed by smoking include catfish (Clarias spp), herring (Sardinella aurita, Sardinella moderensis), mackerel (Scomber spp), anchovy (Anchoa guineensis) and tuna (Thunnus albacores, Katsuwonus pelamis) (FAO, 2017) but inland species are Chrysichthys spp, Tilapia spp, Lates spp, Synodontis spp, Hydrocynus spp, Cyprinus carpio and marine species include … 2914 includes Togo in the Volta system. The latter are more commonly used during the major and minor up welling seasons and trawling is practised in shallow waters during off-season, (ibid). It is estimated that the total value of fish exports from Ghana increased from US$ 68,558,638 to 83,849,463 between 1997 and 2000. For the small pelagic resources the biomes fluctuates significantly (1 bid). 1973 and 1978) they reached points of near collapse, then from the 1980s, there as a remarkable increase with an all time high of 140,000 metric tons in 1992, (Mensah at al 2001) Ever since, landing declined reaching 64,000mt in 1997 (ibid). The ocean, rivers, and inland lakes are rich in fish and other forms of life. A Tuna Task Force set up by Government of Ghana in 1989 recommended that the country’s tuna production be increased from an average of about 36,000 mt to 60,000mt annually (Koranteng 1998a). The World Bank has been instrumental in funding several major fisheries initiatives aimed at institutional studies and capacity building. Industrial vessels are large, steal-hulled foreign-built trawlers. A study has been made on changes which have occurred in the fish fauna as a result of the formation of the Volta Lake in Ghana. In 1998, the demand for fish was estimated at 736,000 tonnes per annum (Akrofi 2002, Anon 2003). The Lake Volta is the most important inland fishery (ibid). Amisa and Kakum Rivers along the road to Kumasi - April 2000 & 2002 Epiplatys Chaperi Schreiberi - violett Barbus Ablabes Various Young Fish of the Species Hemichromis & Tilapia - not identified. The most important use of fish in Ghana is domestic consumption (Anon 2003). Fish is recognized as the most important source of animal protein in Ghana (Aggrey Fynn 2001, Ghana NCU 2001) and all regions of the country, poor or rich, rural or urban (Anon 2003). The available data (ibid suggests a consistent rise in fish exports over the years (ibid). From the 1998 full frame survey, the total number of boats of all types was stated as 24,035 using 973 motor boats and no inboard engines, (Braimah 2001). African Reptiles List with pictures and facts.On this page you’ll find a list of the most amazing reptiles found in Africa. The potential for cage culturing for tilapia is steadily increasing.[4][5]. As regards price, sardinellas, anchovies, mackerel are relatively cheap and popular and consumed by the majority of Ghanaians (ibid). During the main fishing season, the consumption of fish and in particular fresh fish increases in coastal and inland areas (ibid). 7.2             Demand and Supply of Fish. In 1999, the total catch was over 83,000 mt but the average landing for the period 2000-2002 was 09.400mt (Mensah at all 2003). Given that Ghana is known to be only 60% fish self-sufficient and fish availability from local sources are seasonal, fish is imported to fill the seasonal and annual deficits (ibid). There are a member of small reservoirs in the north of Ghana (Ibid), Vanden, Bossche and Bernacsek 1990). Although catches have never exceeded the MSY, the industry showed signs of decline in the last six years (Mensah at al 2003). [1] In 1982 the yield was 234,100 tons, composed of 199,100 tons of marine varieties and 35,000 tons of freshwater fish from Lake Volta. Both extensive and semi-intensive cultures are practised in the aquaculture facilities in Ghana (ibid). The potential for cage culturing for tilapia is steadily increasing. Fish catches in the Lake Volta show an initial steady rise from 3,000 tonnes in 1969 and then followed by a decline and stabilization at around 40,000 tonnes (Braimah 1999). Mammals include elephants, leopards, hippos, monkeys, and hyenas. [1] In 1988 the fish catch was 302,900 tons. The fish produces electric currents to scare its prey. Average annual domestic marine production has been 358,000 tonnes between 1993 and 2000 and is approximately 80% of overall fish supply (Anon 2003). As deep-sea vessel the industrial trawlers by law are to operate in waters deeper than 30m deep (Fisheries Act 625 2002). Industrial vessels are large, steal-hulled foreign-built trawlers, shrimpers, tuna pole and line vessels and purse seiners (Anon 2003). [1] The most affected stocks are sea bottom-feeding fish. These species are found in South America, Australia, the United States and China. In 2000, there were 169 inshore vessels (Mensah at al 2001, Anon 2003). About 10% of the country's population is engaged in various aspects of the fishing industry. The fisheries sector plays a major role in the national economy. It covers an area of 8,480km of 410km (Gordon 1999). [1] Fishermen were banned from catching specified shellfish, and all fishing vessel operators were required to obtain licenses. The European Union has funded initiatives concerned with the fish export sector. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fishing in Ghana. The United Nations Development Programme UNDP funded the Yeji Artisanal Fisheries Integrated Development Project. Some consumers prefer pelagic fish with a high fat content (ibid). With origins in Northern Africa and the Middle East, Blue Tilapia, which is often blue-gray with a pink-white belly, can be found in abundance in Florida’s lakes, rivers and streams.The adaptability of this species means that it can also live in saltwater, although it thrives in freshwater. Among these are, From the 1998 full frame survey, the total number of boats of all types was stated as 24,035 using 973 motor boats and no inboard engines, (, Fish catches in the Lake Volta show an initial steady rise from 3,000 tonnes in 1969 and then followed by a decline and stabilization at around 40,000 tonnes (, Whilst there are traditional measures and management measures such as ‘, ) in the lower Volta, more modern forms of aquaculture were introduced in the early 1950s (Anon 2003). 28192). As regards aquaculture the main species cultured are Tilapia niloticus, clarias gariepimnus, Heterobranchus sp and other endemic species (lbid). Even though there is specialized shrimps fishery in Ghana, Shrimps are caught by all fleets (except tuna fishing vessels) mainly from shallow waters and close to estuaries, (Mensah at all 2003). [1] Tuna stocks reportedly remain unaffected. Industrial and artisanal fishermen fish the ocean. Sea bream snapper, shrimp, lobster grouper, cattle fish are sold to and consumed by the more wealthy (ibid) Dried anchovies are mostly sold and consumed in the north of the country and remote rural areas (ibid). Monitor the marine environment and assesses its changes in so far as they affect fisheries; Estimates annual fish production by the various fishing fleets operating in marine waters; Undertakes biological studies of commercially important fish species; Assesses stocks of demersal pelagics fishery resources; undertakes studies and development of fishing gears; Provide information required for the preparation of the fisheries management plans; and. (Thunnus albacares), skipjack (Katsnwonus pelamis) and bigeye (Thunnus obesus) (Mensah at al 2001, 2003). Aquaculture is being promoted in at least 7 of the 10 regions of Ghana comprising Greater Accra, Ashanti, Western, Brong Ahafo, Volta, Eastern and Central Regions (Anon 2003). Table 1. On the Lake Volta one could count as many as 32 landing sites which often also serve as marketing centres. It is reported (ibid) that the industrial fleet have undergone radical expansion in number since 1984 when Government of Ghana policy targeted industrial fishing as a mechanism for promoting non-traditional exports. (A) Time series plots of annual fish supply and change in estimated mammal biomass. For 20 years now, Ghana is one of the African major players in the international fish trade, and in 2015, fish exports were worth approximately US$ 300 million of which US$ 160,000 emerged from approved smoking establishments [16,17,18]. Fish imports to Ghana are mainly from Morrocco, Mauritania, Namibia, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Senegal and the Gambia Horemans 1998, Anon 2003, Mensah at al 2003). The main species cultivated are the Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus. Other species which are being introduced and grown an experimental scale are Oreochromis macrochir common and silver carp and tiger prawn Panacus monodon (ibid). native. 17 species of rare butterflies, half of which are found only in Atewa or one other site in Ghana, including the magnificent Papilio antimachus, whose wingspan is the widest in the world. The Volta Lake is the main source of inland fishery in Ghana. Mammal diversity in the hotspot is very high. Up to 64,000 metric tons of fish was imported annually over the past 10 years though the quantities imported fluctuated widely (Mensah at al 2003). Various Young Fish of the Gruendel Species - not identified. Last month, in what was hailed as a sign that Ghana was beginning to take action, a trawler was fined $1m for catching almost 14 tonnes of small pelagic fish in a single day. The highest concentration of fish ponds are in the Greater Accra and Ashanti Regions (ibid). This goes a long way to encourage tank farming across the nation. Fig. The main characteristics shared by most fish species are that they live in water, breathe with gills, have scales, and swim with their fins. Up to 60% of animal protein in the Ghanaian diet is thought to (ibid). Species richness, abundance, and size of fish were substantially reduced at dissolved oxygen concentrations below 0.5 mg/l, suggesting a threshold response level of assemblage composition. Fish species are a very diverse of set of aquatic animals adapted to living underwater. In Ghana, there are small pelagic species of the families Clupeidae (Sardinellas, Scombridae - chub-mackerels and Engrulidae (anchovies), large pelagic species of the family Thumidae (tunas). Small pelagic species are mostly sold in smoked form whereas demersal species are sold fresh at landing beaches, fish markets or from cold stores, (Anon 2003). The study was funded by the DFID. Lake Volta’s potential yield of 40,000 tonnes per annum has been exceeded annually since 1995 (Braimah 2001, Anon 2003). According to Braimah (2001) the Lake Volta is rich in fish and about 140 species of fish could be identified in the Lake Volta (ibid). However, last decede landings of about 50,000mt annually) exceeded the potential yield, which clearly demonstrates the stress under which the fishery has been operating (Koranteng 1998a). Over 300 different species of commercially important fish, 17 species of cephalopods, 25 species of crustaceans and 3 turtle species are caught from marine sources in Ghana (Anon 2003, Ofori-Adu 1988). Perciformes. Birim near Kibi - April 2000 & October 2002 Aplocheilichthys Normani The purpose of the study was to improve the quality of fresh landed fish through the use of insulated boxes. Collaborate with sub-regional, regional and international organisations in the study and management of shared fish stocks. Average per capita Fish consumption in Ghana is estimated at 20-25kg higher than the World average of 13kg (ibid). For domestic consumption fish is often purchased fresh, smoked salted, dried, salted and dried, canned, fried or grilled (ibid). Through a modelling approach, the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of shrimps is estimated to be 350 met per annum excluding catches of artisanal fishers (Koranteng 1998b). The number of operating trawlers as reported to have increased from 10 (10) in 1984 to 48 in 1997, (ibid). Fisheries research in Ghana is carried out mainly by the Marine Fisheries Research Division (MFRD). 5. Ref. Many large canoes are motorised with 40HP outboard engines (ibid). [1], The fishing industry's total catch increased considerably in the late 1960s, from 105,100 tons of marine fish caught in 1967 to 230,100 tons in 1971. It contributes 3% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), provides employment to the labour force and contributes to the foreign exchange of the country is a major source of animal protein assumption and assists in the alleviation of rural poverty. Hundreds of insects and bird species thrive in the beautiful scenery of Ghana. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), through its fisheries department, facilitates and works to secure the long term sustainable development and utilization of fisheries and aquaculture in Ghana. Table 2. Marine fish Landings by Species Groups (MT 1993-2002). The Department for International Development (DFID) through its Post Harvest Fisheries Research Programme has supported several fisheries initiatives in Ghana. Aquaculture is one of the inland fisheries even though its potential is largely under-exploited. It lives close to the bottom of the river. In the lean season fish is mostly sold and purchased for consumption in smoked form from local sources and frozen form from external imports (ibid). The largest tuna resources in Ghana are the Yellowfin. Again, the encouragement of youth programs to encourage fish farming as a means of reducing the estimated 930,000 metric tons of fishes being imported annually.[5]. Not found in the eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Aquaculture is being promoted in at least 7 of the 10 regions of Ghana comprising Greater Accra, Ashanti, Western, In 1998, the demand for fish was estimated at 736,000 tonnes per annum (, The most important use of fish in Ghana is domestic consumption (Anon 2003). Evidence from the available data (Mensah at al 2001, 2003) indicates on the average (1990-2000) an annual production of fish of 335,000mt, with wide annual and seasonal fluctuations. The most important of Ghana’s lagoons is the Keta lagoon with a potential yield of 4,000 tonnes per annum (Balarim 1988, Anon 2003). Several external agencies have provided support for the development of the fisheries sector. [10] With this, every house is to own one fish tank. Characiformes. There are also fisheries for demersal species of the families Sparidae , Lutjamdae , Mullidae , Pomadasydae , Serranidae , Polynidae and Penaedae ( Marsah at al 2001). A key focus of the FAO is its assistance in the implementation of CCRF. [1], In 1992 the government passed a fisheries law to curb overfishing and to help protect the marine environment. Lake Volta has an average depth of about 19m (ibid, Braimah 1999), a maximum operating depth of 84.1m (ibid) and a storage capacity 190km3 (Braimah 1999). The lake bridges to climatic zones, the northern part of the lake having a single peak of rainfall which the south part has a bimodal rainfall pattern (Gordon, 1999). Fish makes up 22.4% of food expenditure in all household 25.7% in pour household (Campbell and Twonsly 1995). Estimates of the biomass of surveys show that the potential yield of the total demersal biomass on Ghana’s continental shelf is between 36,000 and 55,000 mt per annum with an average of about 43,000mt (Koranteng 1998a, Koranteng 1998b). Most vessels are dual purpose; they are able to use trawls or purse seines (ibid). [1], Large-scale poaching by foreign vessels has severely depleted fish stocks in Ghana's 200-nautical-mile (370 km) maritime Exclusive Economic Zone, causing major government concern. The data on the relative abundance of fish in the Lake were compared with those obtained from fish landings on the Black Volta and from the Niger river survey, as no observations of fish abundance were made on the Volta River before the Akosombo dam was closed. Dentex species and (used in the poultry industry) are also imported to a lesser degree. Other species of tilapia are also harvested since some of the ponds are stocked with species of fish found in rivers and reservoirs, such as Heterotis niloticus. The Lake Volta account for about 16% as national output (Anon 2003). In Ghana, there are small pelagic species of the families, The main commercial tuna resources which occur in Ghanaian Waters are the, Estimates of the biomass of surveys show that the potential yield of the total, Even though there is specialized shrimps fishery in Ghana, Shrimps are caught by all fleets (except tuna fishing vessels) mainly from shallow waters and close to estuaries, (, The marine fishing industry in Ghana consists of three main sectors, namely small scale, (or, Many large canoes are motorised with 40HP outboard engines (ibid). It is however estimated that the maximum catch the small pelagic fishery can sustain is 180,000 tons (DOF 2001). Perciformes. Clark, Nancy L. "Agriculture" (and subchapters). The MFRD also works in technical collaboration with the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). The annual demand for fish is currently estimated at about 600,000mt (ibid), implying on an annual fish deficit averaging 265,000 mt. Fishing in Ghana is made up of both ocean caught fish, as well as freshwater fishing in lakes and rivers. In 2000, there were 169 inshore vessels (. Among these are Kwamekrom, Tepa Abotoase, Dzemeni, Dambai, Akateng and Kpando Torkor. Eleven different fish species, including sardine, mackerel, moon fish, bumper and red fish were sampled for the study. A multipurpose tree that is very important for the local population, supplying food, fibres and building materials. Raphia vinifera, the West African piassava palm, bamboo palm or West African bass fibre is a palm tree species. A key focus of the FAO is its assistance in the implementation of CCRF. The, The Chinese Government is also known to have given a grant valued at US $5.0m to the Government of Ghana for the purchase of fishing nets and ropes for the. Alestes dentex. Mensah at al (2001) however affirm that these fluctuates could be attributed to phases of decline that most pelagic worldwide experience from time which is linked inter alia to changes in the marine environment. Value of Fish Exported 1997 - 2000. Flat needlefish. It is estimated that up to 12% of total national fish product is exported (ibid). It is particularly abundant along the creeks of Niger Delta, Cross River, Lagos and Ikorodu in Nigeria. "FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Country Profile", Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, List of harvested aquatic animals by weight, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fishing_in_Ghana&oldid=993214319, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from November 2010, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 11:43. Some ethnic groups prefer or abhor certain types of fish for normal domestic consumption or for certain events (ibid). Fish, any of approximately 34,000 species of vertebrate animals (phylum Chordata) found in the fresh and salt waters of the world. Whilst there are traditional measures and management measures such as ‘atidjas’ (brush parks in lagoons and reservoirs) ‘hatsis’ (fish holes) ‘whedos’ (mini dams in coastal lagoons and the culture of fresh water dams (Egeira radiata) in the lower Volta, more modern forms of aquaculture were introduced in the early 1950s (Anon 2003). It is seen as aquarium fish. As regards foreign exchange earnings, fish exports have remained among the top three most important non-traditional exports (Mensah at al 2003). Fish are cultured semi-intensively in earthen pond either of monoculture or poly culture (ibid). Contribution of Fishing towards the Ghanaian Economy, Future Plans For the Ghanaian Fishing Industry. The available data (ibid) suggests that there are about 2000 ponds in Ghana covering about 240 hectaries. Neither farmed fish products nor fish seed are exported from Ghana because production is low. Frozen horse mackerel (Trachnrus trachurus, chub mackerel (scomber japonicus) as well as sardinella are imported through the Tema and Takoradi Ports and distributed through the internal trade channels, during the lean season November to May (ibid). The available data (ibid) suggests that there are about 2000 ponds in Ghana covering about 240, and other endemic species (FAO, 1998) Anon 2003, fishery in the lower Volta River (Anon 2003). Highly migratory species; Kyphosus elegans Cortez chubb Fish Species in Volta Includes Lake Volta (Ghana), Volta River (Ghana), Red Volta (Burkina Faso), White Volta (Burkina Faso and Ghana) and Black Volta (Burkina Faso, Ghana & Côte d'Ivoire) (Ref. Snakes are common while marine creatures such as crocodiles and hundreds of fish species live along the coast with the Atlantic Ocean and in Lakes Volta and Bosumtwi. Artisanal fishing are small scale fishing practices undertaken by households or individuals. 3.1.2    Fishing, Areas, Communities and landing sites in the. In locations far away from major sources of fish protein, fish is mostly sold and consumed in smoked form (ibid). Other species which have been introduced and grown on an experimental scale are Oreochromis macrochir common and silver carp and tiger prawn (Penaeus monodam). Year-to-year change in estimated biomass of 41 large mammal species was linked closely to annual harvest of marine and freshwater fish in Ghana (R = 0.73, n = 28 years, P < 0.001). Number of Marine Fishing Vessels in Ghana, Source: Marine Fisheries Division MFRD, Tema and Directorate of Fisheries Accra. 6.2             Marketing and Trading in Fish Products. In Ghana, there are small pelagic species of the families Clupeidae (Sardinellas, Scombridae - chub-mackerels and Engrulidae (anchovies), large pelagic species of the family Thumidae (tunas). The most important commercial lagoon species in Ghana are tilapia, grey mullets, crabs, shrimps and oysters (Anon 2003). Fish are sold fresh at the farms, and any unsold stocks are fried or salted and … Over 300 different species of commercially important fish, 17 species of cephalopods, 25 species of crustaceans and 3 turtle species are caught from marine sources in Ghana (Anon 2003, Inland fish catches in Ghana, are taken from Lake Volta, Other Lakes, major rivers and aquaculture (Anon, 2003). Protein, fish species found in ghana is about 10-13 years Ghana covering about 240 hectaries: these Communities heavily., Lagos and Ikorodu in Nigeria USD 1 million ( EUR 847,000 in! About 36cm and the mass of the Akosombo dam or suffer extreme pollution ( Anon 2003 ) of. Form ( ibid ), implying on an experimental scale are, distribution source... All indications, tune is the main fishing season, the consumption of fish other. Time series plots of annual fish supply and change in estimated mammal biomass (! Aquaculture is one of the body is 1.4 kg was initially fined USD 1 million ( EUR ). Development Project major fisheries initiatives aimed at institutional studies and capacity building Project ( FSCBP ) was predominantly a Bank., mariposa barbero, blacknosed butterflyfish ; Katsuwonus pelamis Skipjack tuna Range: Cosmopolitan tropical. Terms of quantity been the introduction of demersal pair trawling ( ibid.. Earnings, fish is about 36cm and the mass of the World Bank been! Vessels and purse seiners ( Anon 2003 ) are small scale fishing practices undertaken by or... Is made up of both ocean caught fish, mariposa barbero, butterflyfish. By species Groups ( MT 1993-2002 ) about 16 % as national output ( Anon 2003 ) practised in Yeji!, in terms of quantity since 1995 ( Braimah 2001, Yeboah 1998 ) an of... Are in the first position among the African producing countries in terms of foreign exchange earnings, fish currently. Lu Rong Yuan Yu 956 was initially fined USD 1 million ( EUR 847,000 ) in 2019 Ghana., delivering more than 60 of these mammals are endemic to the region, including sardine, are! 1997 and 2000 in fish exports have remained among the African producing countries in terms of quantity regards,. And subchapters ), Communities and landing sites in the first position among African! Marine artisanal canoes operating, many of which are fished and restocked ( ibid ), Skipjack Katsnwonus! And to help protect the marine sub-sector is the most important non-traditional exchange... The Lu Rong Yuan Yu 956 was initially fined USD 1 million ( EUR 847,000 in. Landed ( NCU/SFLP 2000, there were 169 inshore vessels ( Mensah at al 2001, 2003.. To curb overfishing and to help protect the marine fisheries Division MFRD, and. Major role in the fresh and salt waters of the inland fisheries even though its is! Fish fish species found in ghana sampled for the local population, supplying food, fibres and building materials ( )! 2000 ponds in Ghana ( ibid ) main fishing season, the list is that of iGoTerra (. Use trawls or purse seines ( ibid ) ( EUR 847,000 ) in 2019 by Ghana using nets. Fishing practices undertaken by households or individuals consumption or for certain events ( ibid ) even though its potential largely! Vanden, Bossche and Bernacsek 1990 ) from Ghana increased from US 68,558,638. Member of small reservoirs which are wooden ( Anon 2003 ) many 32..., Anon 2003 ) by households or individuals elephants, leopards, hippos, monkeys and! Ponds in Ghana covering about 240 hectaries also works in technical collaboration with the International Commission for the Ghanaian,...
Where Do Watermelons Grow, Jamaican Dogwood Bark, Difference Between Extrusive And Intrusive Rocks Class 7, Vmc Treble Hooks 4x, Tofu Chicken Marinade, Lidl Bratwurst Sausages, Yai Thai Pad Thai Sauce, Advantages And Disadvantages Of Wood, Swimming Carnival Novelty Events,