[1][4], Because the operator did not expect the decision to decommission the facility, the plant was put into "safe enclosure" status, given that this was the only technical solution for fast decommissioning, especially in consideration of the lack of a final storage facility.[4]. [64], P3Tek, an agency of the Indonesia Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource, has reviewed a thorium molten salt reactor by Thorcon called the TMSR-500. [5] From 1985 to 1989, the THTR-300 registered 16410 operation hours and generated 2891000 MWh, according to a full-load working time of 423 days. How to abbreviate Thorium High-temperature Reactor? The original cost of the project was Rs. The reactor construction has not yet begun. "[11] Nuclear physicist Victor J. Stenger, for one, first learned of it in 2012: It came as a surprise to me to learn recently that such an alternative has been available to us since World War II, but not pursued because it lacked weapons applications. [68], In Britain, one organisation promoting or examining research on thorium-based nuclear plants is The Alvin Weinberg Foundation. "[67] In 2013, Aker Solutions purchased patents from Nobel Prize winning physicist Carlo Rubbia for the design of a proton accelerator-based thorium nuclear power plant. 153–63. Many of these early trials were able to use high-enriched uranium (HEU) as the fissile ‘driver’ component, and this would not be considered today. In the hybrid thorium setup, thorium-plutonium pellets power a … ... his team built a working reactor .... and he spent the rest of his 18-year tenure trying to make thorium the heart of the nation’s atomic power effort. It had to be bailed out by the government with 92 million Mark.[6]. [48] Validation of its core reactor physics was underway by late 2017. [58] The Centre had sanctioned Rs. Get the most popular abbreviation for Thorium High-temperature Reactor updated in 2020 [82][83] Proved reserves are a good indicator of the total future supply of a mineral resource. [69] However, in 2010, the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) concluded that for the short to medium term, "...the thorium fuel cycle does not currently have a role to play," in that it is "technically immature, and would require a significant financial investment and risk without clear benefits," and concluded that the benefits have been "overstated. That research led to the Peach Bottom, PA 40-MW reactor that pro- duced electricity from 1966 to 1974. There are substantial deposits in several other countries (see table "World thorium reserves"). Thorium is three times as abundant as uranium and nearly as abundant as lead and gallium in the Earth's crust. Proponents also cite the low weaponization potential as an advantage of thorium due to how difficult it is to weaponize the specific uranium-233/232 and plutonium-238 isotopes produced by thorium reactors, while critics say that development of breeder reactors in general (including thorium reactors, which are breeders by nature) increases proliferation concerns. After a couple of weeks the power plant was switched on again, but the former supporters withdrew their backing. Martin explains that Weinberg's unwillingness to sacrifice potentially safe nuclear power for the benefit of military uses forced him to retire: Weinberg realized that you could use thorium in an entirely new kind of reactor, one that would have zero risk of meltdown. "[17][28] Friends of the Earth UK considers research into it as "useful" as a fallback option. Abbr. He failed. A nuclear reactor consumes certain specific fissile isotopes to produce energy. "[34], CANDU reactors are capable of using thorium,[35][36] and Thorium Power Canada has, in 2013, planned and proposed developing thorium power projects for Chile and Indonesia. The pebble bed thorium high-temperature reactor THTR 300 was shut down on September 1, 1989, after > 16 000 h operation time. It was decided to shut down THTR-300. World monazite resources are estimated to be about 12 million tons, two-thirds of which are in heavy mineral sands deposits on the south and east coasts of India. The thorium fuel cycle is a potential way to produce long term nuclear energy with low radio-toxicity waste. The pressure vessel that contained the pebbles was prestressed concrete. THTR-300 was only in full service for 423 days. Student: SK Gintner. Comparing the amount of thorium needed with coal, Nobel laureate, Liquid fluoride thorium reactors are designed to be meltdown proof. The reasons were that uranium-fueled reactors were more efficient, the research was proven, and thorium's breeding ratio was thought insufficient to produce enough fuel to support development of a commercial nuclear industry. Consequently, some radioactive dust was released to the environment. [61], Delays have since postponed the commissioning [criticality?] On May 4, 1986, just 6 months after it had been connected to the power grid, a fuel pebble became lodged in a fuel feed pipe to the reactor core. The thermal output of the core was 750 megawatts; heat was transferred to the helium coolant, which then transported its heat to water, which then was used to generate electricity via a Rankine cycle. of the PFBR to September 2016,[62] but India's commitment to long-term nuclear energy production is underscored by the approval in 2015 of ten new sites for reactors of unspecified types,[63] though procurement of primary fissile material—preferably plutonium—may be problematic due to India's low uranium reserves and capacity for production. “Thorium reactors are safe” Wrong. ORNL has developed two FHR-class MSR concepts: the 1,500 megawatt electric advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) and the 125 megawatt thermal small modular advanced high-temperature reactor (SmAHTR). But it was apparent to me that my style, my attitude, and my perception of the future were no longer in tune with the powers within the AEC.[9]. It is difficult to make a practical nuclear bomb from a thorium reactor's byproducts. The fuel supply had already been difficult before this decision, and now it was truly at risk. The HTMR100 Reactor is a High Temperature Gas Cooled Modular Reactor. The electric conversion system produced 308 megawatts of electricity. [59] The design envisages a start up with reactor grade plutonium that breeds U-233 from Th-232. Thereafter, thorium is to be the only fuel. "[17] According to Martin, "China has made clear its intention to go it alone," adding that China already has a monopoly over most of the world's rare earth minerals. The remaining facility was "safely enclosed". According to the World Nuclear Association, there are seven types of reactors that can be designed to use thorium as a nuclear fuel. Now they are more interested because of smog," said Professor Li Zhong, a scientist working on the project. Since all natural thorium can be used as fuel no expensive fuel enrichment is needed. Category: Reactor Designs, Technology, Thorium. In 2018, the New Brunswick Energy Solutions Corporation announced the participation of Moltex Energy in the nuclear research cluster that will work on research and development on small modular reactor technology. The study reported that building a ThorCon TMSR-500 would meet Indonesia's regulations for nuclear energy safety and performance. The irradiation would then make uranium-233 in lieu of uranium-232 for use in nuclear weapons—making thorium into a dual purpose fuel. BHAVINI builds breeder reactors in India. [7][8] Weinberg himself recalls this period: [Congressman] Chet Holifield was clearly exasperated with me, and he finally blurted out, "Alvin, if you are concerned about the safety of reactors, then I think it may be time for you to leave nuclear energy." "This is definitely a race," he added. The Steenkampskraal Thorium Limited (STL) high temperature modular reactor (HTMR) is a Generation IV 100 MW helium-cooled power plant that features a thorium-based fuel cycle. On October 10, 1991, the 180-metre (590 ft) high dry cooling tower, which at one time was the highest cooling tower in the world, was explosively dismantled and from October 22, 1993 to April 1995 the remaining fuel was unloaded and transported to the intermediate storage in Ahaus. Though named thorium high temperature reactor, mostly U-235 was fissioned. China expects to put thorium reactors into commercial use by 2030.[46]. [14]:7, Summarizing some of the potential benefits, Martin offers his general opinion: "Thorium could provide a clean and effectively limitless source of power while allaying all public concern—weapons proliferation, radioactive pollution, toxic waste, and fuel that is both costly and complicated to process. Pressurized Water Reactor EAR. "[3], After studying the feasibility of using thorium, nuclear scientists Ralph W. Moir and Edward Teller suggested that thorium nuclear research should be restarted after a three-decade shutdown and that a small prototype plant should be built.[4][5][6]. [60] As of 2017, the design was in the final stages of validation. There is a higher cost of fuel fabrication and reprocessing than in plants using traditional solid fuel rods. [14] In 2009 the chairman of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission said that India has a "long-term objective goal of becoming energy-independent based on its vast thorium resources to meet India's economic ambitions."[51][52]. [2] Heinz Riesenhuber, Federal Secretary of Research at that time, inaugurated it, and it first went critical on September 13, 1983. "[14] China also finalized an agreement with a Canadian nuclear technology company to develop improved CANDU reactors using thorium and uranium as a fuel. "[15], The World Nuclear Association explains some of the possible benefits[16], The thorium fuel cycle offers enormous energy security benefits in the long-term—due to its potential for being a self-sustaining fuel without the need for fast neutron reactors. House of Lords member Bryony Worthington is promoting thorium, calling it “the forgotten fuel” that could alter Britain's energy plans. Thorium's ore, Breeding in a thermal neutron spectrum is slow and requires extensive. [49], According to Dr R K Sinha, chairman of their Atomic Energy Commission, "This will reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, mostly imported, and will be a major contribution to global efforts to combat climate change." Sign in to disable ALL ads. The country currently gets under 2% of its electricity from nuclear power, with the rest coming from coal (60%), hydroelectricity (16%), other renewable sources (12%) and natural gas (9%). The THTR 300 is a project that is jointly sponsored by the Federal Republic of Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia, and Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk GmbH. Lower Production of Transuranic Elements. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #V33A-1161. The fourth reason for the high energy production is the MSR’s high operating temperature (550-700 degrees Celcius) that yields higher efficiencies of electricity production (Juhasz, et al., 2009, p. 4), (Hargraves & Moir, 2010, p. 311). There have been several significant demonstrations of the use of thorium-based fuels to generate electricity in several reactor types. However, development of thorium power has significant start-up costs. Though named thorium high temperature reactor, mostly U-235 was fissioned. According to, There is much less nuclear waste when thorium is used as a fuel in a, According to Moir and Teller, "once started up [it] needs no other fuel except thorium because it makes most or all of its own fuel.". A, Mining thorium is safer and more efficient than mining uranium. In 2014, the Generation IV international forum confirmed the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as one of 6 promising reactor technologies that should be pursued in order to develop advanced reactors suitable for deployment in the 2030’s. [70], In its January 2012 report to the United States Secretary of Energy, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Future notes that a "molten-salt reactor using thorium [has] also been proposed. The VHTR is a helium-gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal-neutron-spectrum reactor with a core outlet temperature > 900°C, and a goal of 1000°C, sufficient to support high-temperature processes such as production of hydrogen through … [14]:157[23], In March 2014, with their reliance on coal-fired power having become a major cause of their current "smog crisis," they reduced their original goal of creating a working reactor from 25 years down to 10. [74][75], Alvin Radkowsky, chief designer of the world's second full-scale atomic electric power plant in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, founded a joint US and Russian project in 1997 to create a thorium-based reactor, considered a "creative breakthrough. In addition, the transition to thorium could be done through the incineration of weapons grade plutonium (WPu) or civilian plutonium. September 2013, "The present state of the HTR concept based on experience gained from AVR and THTR", "Decommissioning of the thorium high temperature reactor (THTR 300)", "74/295/Euratom: Council Decision of 4 June 1974 on the establishment of the Joint Undertaking Hochtemperatur- Kernkraftwerk GmbH (HKG)", http://www.wa.de/lokales/hamm/uentrop/thtr-milliardengrab-hamm-uentrop-wird-jahre-3099260.html, Cooling Tower of the Schmehausen Nuclear Plant, The THTR steam generator: design, manufacture and installation, Gas-cooled reactor safety and licensing aspects, THTR steam generator licensing experience as seen by the manufacturer, Accident analysis and accident control for the THTR - 300 power plant, Aspects of water and air ingress accidents in HTRs, Safety concept of high-temperature reactors based on the experience with AVR and THTR, The behaviour of spherical HTR fuel elements under accident conditions, Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research, Schnell-Brüter- Kernkraftwerksgesellschaft mbH' (SBK), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=THTR-300&oldid=993915943, Joint undertakings of the European Union and European Atomic Energy Community, Nuclear power stations with closed reactors, Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Nuclear power station articles using Infobox power station, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 04:27. From 2013 to 2017, 23 Million Euro were budgeted for lighting, safeguarding and the storage of the pellets in the interim storage facility in Ahaus. The THTR-300 cost €2.05 billion and was predicted to cost an additional €425 million … Thorium nuclear reactors are unlikely to produce cheaper energy, but the management of spent fuel is likely to be cheaper than for uranium nuclear reactors.[28]. https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2019/09/p3tek-recommends-thorcon-molten-salt-nuclear-reactor-for-indonesia.html, In May 2010, researchers from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York began to collaborate on the development of thorium reactors,[65] aimed at being self-sustaining, "meaning one that will produce and consume about the same amounts of fuel," which is not possible with uranium in a light water reactor. The heat source is based on a fuel technology with intrinsic safety characteristics. [17], Moir and Teller agree, noting that the possible advantages of thorium include "utilization of an abundant fuel, inaccessibility of that fuel to terrorists or for diversion to weapons use, together with good economics and safety features … "[4] The very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) (see Fig. [47], In February 2014, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), in Mumbai, India, presented their latest design for a "next-generation nuclear reactor" that burns thorium as its fuel ore, calling it the Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). 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